Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value <p>The Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value (JAPIV) presents the development of performance-based value models pertaining to management, leadership, and service delivery aspects in civil engineering, as well as other service delivery environments, including education. The journal publishes peer-reviewed, open-access issues in rolling format; engaging traditional journal article style with innovative publishing technology to ensure faster, yet prestigious, publication for authors.</p> Kashiwagi Solution Model Inc. en-US Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 1941-191X The Effect of Expertise on Project Complexity <p>Project complexity has commonly been cited as a major cause of poor project performance (Al-ahmad et al, 2019). Although literature has identified various methods to measure and define project complexity, research insights did not find an explanation of how to reduce project complexity or its effect on project performance. Expertise has been identified as a potential solution; however, little is known about the extent of impact that expertise may have on project complexity. Using a multimethod approach inclusive of literature, survey and interview research we investigate the “effect’ of expertise on project complexity. We analyzed the effect of expertise on 22 unique project complexity factors. Data consists of 97 survey respondents and 15 interview participants. The research led to the following results which should be incorporated into future models: (1) expertise reduces project complexity, (2) experts do not perceive ICT projects as complex while nonexperts perceive ICT projects as complex, and (3) experts’ challenges that relate to project complexity factors correspond to project stakeholders as they ultimately fall outside the control of the expert.</p> Isaac Kashiwagi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2020-11-13 2020-11-13 12 2 99 99 10.37265/japiv.v12i2.128 Comparing the Chinese Construction Industry with Other Developing Countries to Identify an Applicable Solution to Low Construction Performance <p>The Chinese Construction Industry (CCI) has become one of the largest in the world within the last 20 years. However, due to its rapid growth it has been experiencing issues causing the industry to struggle with delivering high performing projects. Due to the differences between developed and developing countries construction industries, research from other developing countries that were similar to China (Vietnam and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) were used to help identify solutions to improve the CCI. Previous research has identified the major risks in Vietnam and Saudi Arabia. It has also been identified the only solution that has documented evidence that it can improve construction performance is the Best Value Approach that was developed in the United States at Arizona State University. A literature research was performed identifying the major risks and issues that have been documented in the CCI. These risks were then compared to that of the Vietnam and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s construction industry risks. It was identified that the majority of the top risks were similar in all three countries. Identifying that developing countries have been experiencing the same issues. This also identifies that the Best Value Approach might be a solution to help improve the CCI.</p> Yutian Chen Oswald Chong Copyright (c) 2020 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2020-11-13 2020-11-13 12 2 81 81 10.37265/japiv.v12i2.127 Success Factors for Project Risk Management in Construction Projects: A Vietnam Case Study <p>Despite being one of the oldest industries in human history, the modern construction industry is still suffering from delays, cost overruns, and low satisfaction levels. As construction activities greatly contribute to economic growth for any nation, the study of how to achieve success in construction projects should be continuously developing and attracting scholars’ attention. The Vietnam Construction Industry (VCI) is no exception. The economy in Vietnam has been growing fast and steady with significant contributions from construction activities. The VCI also faces unique risks pertaining to the conditions of developing countries that require a separate study on project risk management strategies. This paper focuses on a survey that is adopted from 23 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) pertaining to common construction risks in the VCI. Factors were found through extensive literature reviews, and inputs were solicited from 101 VCI participants. The participants ranked those CSFs with respect to impact to project success. The study reveals the top five impactful CSFs such as all project parties clearly understand their responsibilities, more serious consideration during contractor selection stage, test contractors’ experience and competency through successful projects in the past, project team members need to be well matched to particular projects, and promote pre-qualification of tenders and selective bidding. Spearman’s rank-order correlation tests determined no significant differences between the participating groups. Factor analysis was conducted to explore the principal success factor groupings and yielded four outcomes – Improving Management Capability, Adequate Pre-Planning, Stakeholders’ Management, and Performance-based Procurement. The findings lay the foundation to understand project management in developing countries and assist project managers in planning and forming strategies to ensure high performance in their projects.</p> Nguyen Le Oswald Chong Dean Kashiwagi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2020-11-13 2020-11-13 12 2 63 63 10.37265/japiv.v12i2.126 The Impact of Utilizing Expertise to Project Risk and Performance <p>Organizations have had difficulty in finding good project and risk management techniques that will deliver high performing projects. Research has identified common risks that occur on projects, but previous research has had difficulty coming up with reliable methods to mitigate those risks. However, the Best Value Approach (BVA) has proven to be effective in minimizing risk and increasing project performance. The crux of the BVA is the utilization of experts to minimize project risk. The BVA approach is unique from other project management methodologies which focus on increasing communication, collaboration and decision making. Previous research shows that client stakeholders are the cause of the majority of project risks, while the expert vendors usually do not cause risk on a project. It has been observed that expert vendors are able to minimize client stakeholder risk by transparent planning and tracking. Using case study research, an expert contractor’s project is analyzed to determine the impact of using the BVA project management methodology to minimize project risk. As a result, the contractor did not cause any risk based on time and cost and helped the client minimize their risk. The research identifies eight risk mitigating actions the contractor applied through the BVA. The majority of the risk mitigating actions were performed primarily in the preparation and preplanning phases of the project.</p> Jake Gunnoe Alfredo Rivera Delbert Feenstra Copyright (c) 2020 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2020-11-13 2020-11-13 12 2 47 47 10.37265/japiv.v12i2.125 Development of the Use of Performance Information <p>This paper documents the history of the development of performance information [1982-2020], for the delivery of services. It identifies traditional industries as client controlled. In the past, clients utilized a structure of technical professionals who had education, certifications, and experience. Professionals set both policy and structure for their professionalism. The traditional industry does not differentiate between the values of vendors, professionals and stakeholders. This paper identifies that professionals are resistant to using performance information which differentiates. The initial proposal to successfully implement information management was to use automation. However, the industry resisted the automation and the research identified that simplicity and transparency was the only solution. This paper identifies that the Performance Based Studies Research Group’s (PBSRG) success in performance information development was due to a unique design and methodology to research performance information as a disruptive technology. A new methodology called the Information Measurement Theory (IMT) was designed to redefine risk, expertise and information. The major source of validation of the new concepts was joint academic and industry research tests. Three major research tests confirmed that the client creates over 90% of all risk. PBSRG worked with a manufacturing company to design a high-performance roofing program which ended after 16 years due to it being based on client centric concepts. An expert contractor took the lessons learned and maximized the use of performance information with a vendor centric approach.</p> Jackson Harare Jacob Kashiwagi Joseph Kashiwagi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2020-11-13 2020-11-13 12 2 11 11 10.37265/japiv.v12i2.124 Case Study of Sustainability of the PIPS Best Value Program at the University of Minnesota <p>This is a case study testing the hypothesis that the best value PIPS process is a sustainable process/structure. The best value PIPS process has been tested 450 times over 13 years. However, the process/structure has not been sustainable, meaning that users have been successful at individual tests, but unable to imbed the system into their organization and standard operating procedures. It has been resisted because it minimizes the need for construction management, simplifies the delivery process and transfers both risk and control to the contractors. The University of Minnesota approached the Performance Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG) to test and implement the process. Unlike other research clients, they agreed to meet the requirements for sustainability: implementing a long term strategic plan, using and instructing a core team, running tests before full implementation, and implementing continuous education to both client professionals and contractors. This study shows the results of the hypothesis testing.</p> Kenneth Sullivan Dean Kashiwagi Copyright (c) 2008 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2008-06-02 2008-06-02 12 2 73 73 10.37265/japiv.v1i1.123 Assessment of Pakistani Construction Industry – Current Performance and the Way Forward <p>The Pakistani Construction Industry has always been of economic and social significance to the country. In contrast to the prospective share of Pakistani construction in the local and global economic market, conversely, the development of the sector has not been at par with the market demands. With the recent rapid economic growth of the country, Pakistan now offers a growing market for the construction industry. The Government of Pakistan has responded to this opportunity by planning extensive infrastructure expansion programs. All of these programs have the potential to lead the local Industry to establish respect, status and international recognition when the appropriate efforts are extended to achieve the same. Even with the opportunity for growth the challenges will be extensive. This research presents the current state of performance of Pakistani Construction Industry and provides directions for strategic improvement of the construction industry on a sustainable basis. Major findings of the research include: a cultural and behavioral shift in the mind-set of all participants in the construction process especially top management is necessary if the construction industry is to improve its performance and competitiveness; the “boom cycle” and corresponding shortage of labor trades has increased the need for industry participants to adopt and apply construction project management philosophy, tools and techniques to help them manage the industry performance and productivity in a sustainable long-term mode. The major obstacles to improving the performance of Pakistani construction industry were found to be lack of expertise/resources in construction project management and its applied areas. A rigid attitude and behavior of executive management toward quality, safety and risk management, plus more management and emphasis on employees’ commitment toward project performance, better education and training to drive the improvement process, and tendency to cure the cause of the problem rather than the symptom. If coordination, teamwork, productivity and industry performance in the long run is going to improve, then extensive awareness and training programs to improve the clients’ understanding and approach toward construction project management must be initiated without exception.</p> Rizwan Farooqui Syed Ahmed Sarosh Lodi Copyright (c) 2008 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2008-06-02 2008-06-02 12 2 51 51 10.37265/japiv.v1i1.122 Design-Build Project Delivery in Military Construction: Approach to Best Value Procurement <p>Design-Build is rapidly becoming one of the most commonly used project delivery methods in the facility construction industry. The United States Air Force and the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) are expected to establish a target of 75% of all Military Construction (MILCON) projects delivered using the Design-Build method. The use of this delivery method will bring significant changes in the relationships between the various parties associated with facility project delivery when compared to the traditional Design-Bid-Build method. This paper demonstrates that Design-Build delivery with a best value selection is an important tool in accomplishing AFRC’s cost efficient, rapid response transformation goals applicable to facility construction. Three hundred thirty two projects in program years 2002 through 2006, constructed using both traditional Design-Bid-Build or Design-Build delivery methods, were examined. Parameters used for comparisons were construction cost and schedule growth, project cost, vertical versus horizontal construction, and number of days required to prepare solicitation documents, advertise and accomplish construction award. This research reveals significant project schedule advantages with Design-Build best value selection delivery. The advantages are apparent in both pre and post construction award activities. Potential Design-Build cost advantages are hindered by Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations requiring firm fixed price contracts at construction award.</p> Birtice Garner Kathleen Richardson Daniel Castro-Lacouture Copyright (c) 2008 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2008-06-02 2008-06-02 12 2 35 35 10.37265/japiv.v1i1.121 Industry Transformation: Testing Best-Value and Leadership in Non-Construction Industries <p>The Performance Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG) in the Del E. Webb School of Construction at Arizona State University has conducted research in the development and application of best-value and leadership based process models in construction for the past 14 years. Despite significant success in terms of construction performance, the concepts and ideas of the best-value/leadership process models have met consistent resistance. Due to the construction industry’s characteristics, fragmented system, and inability to change easily, documenting industry impact has been difficult. The PBSRG has embarked on an effort to test their research concepts of best-value/leadership process models in industries outside of construction, with a less fragmented system, but with similar characteristics. In this way, the authors hope to gain a better understanding of the research models’ impact on an industry. This paper presents the initial testing of the bestvalue/ leadership process model in the area of dining services, specifically on a $300+ million contract for one of the largest campuses in the United States, Arizona State University. The initial results show a significant increase in guaranteed money, performance, and risk minimization. The expanse of the effort seeks to create an industry transformation model to be first tested in dining services and then brought back to the construction industry as an example to drive change in the future.</p> Kenneth Sullivan John Michael Copyright (c) 2008 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2008-06-02 2008-06-02 12 2 20 20 10.37265/japiv.v1i1.120 The Construction Industry in China: Its Bidding System and Use of Performance Information <p>This paper describes the rapid development of China’s construction industry and especially its bidding system. After summarily depicting the history, scope, employees and contractors in China’s construction industry, the paper identifies that even after nearly thirty years’ development, the sector is still harassed by the problems of low productivity, unskilled employees, unsophisticated technologies, inadequate legal framework and flawed mechanism. This paper also points out that the status quo of performance information in China’s construction industry still leaves much to be desired, and that in order to merge into the global market, China has made much effort to introduce the competitive bidding mechanism and the method of evaluated lowest bidding price to the industry. Via picturing the course of using the method of evaluated lowest bidding price in China’s construction industry, the paper also characters why and how the performance information is used in the sector. At the end of the paper, it is pointed out that although some certain district has made some efforts to use performance information, most Chinese scholars and government officials are still convinced that the method of evaluated lowest bidding price does accord with the market-oriented trend and should certainly be widely adopted in the future.</p> Wenjuan Zhang Dongping Cao Guangbin Wang Copyright (c) 2008 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2008-06-02 2008-06-02 12 2 6 6 10.37265/japiv.v1i1.119 A Case Study of a Best Value Manufacturer <p>This is a case study of a construction product manufacturer’s effort to become a profitable manufacturer of roofing systems while providing a best value product to the client (best performance at the lowest cost.) The manufacturer was attempting to become successful with product performance in an industry where low performance of competing products brought a perceived high risk of nonperformance from clients. The manufacturer’s efforts included documentation of performance of their installed product, creating a risk management process, testing the risk management process and creating a supply chain structure which minimized the risk of both the manufacturer and the client. The key component of a best value manufacturer is the identification of the true buyer of their materials is the owner of the facility which buys their product and not the contractors. This paper documents the transformation from not having performance information to having documented performance on their product, developing a risk management program, and exercising their risk management program. This includes the formulation of a performance based contractor program and the application of the Performance Information Risk Management System (PIRMS.)</p> Dean Kashiwagi Jake Smithwick Jacob Kashiwagi Kenneth Sullivan Copyright (c) 2010 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2010-02-01 2010-02-01 12 2 57 57 10.37265/japiv.v2i1.118 The Dutch Construction Industry: An Overview and Its Use of Performance Information <p>This paper gives an overview of the Dutch Construction industry and elaborates further on its use of performance information. After giving an overview of the Dutch construction industry depicting size, major contractors, growth, profitability, value added, costs, productivity, this section is concluded by giving future predictions of the industry for the following years. A summary is given of the 2002 Dutch construction collusion as a means to give explanations for the persistent use of procurement based on lowest-bid competition. Although a starting realization is recognizable towards more innovative ways of tendering to restore trust and bilateral relationships between constructors and their clients; change is slow as hard data of performance information is limited. Current available performance information of the Dutch construction industry is discussed, such as failure rate and costs, bottlenecks, procurement methods used, customer satisfaction and selection criteria. As seen throughout this paper, innovative ways of procurement can contribute to the changes aspired to by the Dutch construction industry as well as bring in added value. Government plays a central role as a major client and frontrunner and also with the means of regulating policy on procurement for the industry. Although new initiatives of change towards more innovative ways of tendering are starting to build with cooperation between companies and industry platforms, it remains still in its infancy.</p> Jeroen van de Rijt Michael Hompes Sicco Santema Copyright (c) 2010 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2010-02-01 2010-02-01 12 2 33 33 10.37265/japiv.v2i1.117 Best-Value Process Implementation at the City of Peoria: Five Years of Research Testing <p>The City of Peoria is Arizona’s ninth largest city. It covers nearly 178 square miles and is home to over 153,000 residents. The projected 10 year growth of the City is estimated to be over 204,000, which has prompted a significant expansion of the City’s municipal services and facilities. In an attempt to efficiently meet the demands of the projected growth, the City of Peoria partnered with the Performance Based Studies Research Group out of Arizona State University in 2004. The objective of the partnership was to test and implement a best value structure within the City’s construction program, specifically as applicable to capital projects. This paper presents a five year summary of the test implementation results, the evolution of the best value structure within the city, project performance, service expansion to include non-construction projects, and lessons learned from the research. The research effort has included $385,691,802 in total projects awarded and implemented under the best value structure, with documented performance increases in cost metrics, schedule metrics, and customer satisfaction.</p> Kenneth Sullivan John Savicky Brad Carey Copyright (c) 2010 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2010-02-01 2010-02-01 12 2 23 23 10.37265/japiv.v2i1.116 Past Performance Information: Analysis of the Optimization of a Performance Evaluation Criteria <p>Performance information has been defined as “the set of metrics used to quantify both the efficiency and effectiveness of actions (Neely 1995).” From this definition, past performance information can be extrapolated to entail those metrics that consider the effectiveness of past or previous actions. Within value-based procurement methodologies, the use of past performance information as an evaluation criteria is common; however, the optimal use, method, specific criteria, and collection techniques vary widely across clients and buyers. This paper presents a history and evolution of the use of past performance information within a specific procurement and project delivery process called the Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS). It also includes an analysis of the modifications made, an analysis of the effort required for the inclusion of past performance information as a selection criteria as calculated from the procurer’s perspective, and an analysis of a new methodology of a vendor driven collection process as compared to a buyer driven collection process.</p> Kenneth Sullivan John Savicky Copyright (c) 2010 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2010-02-01 2010-02-01 12 2 13 13 10.37265/japiv.v2i1.115 Influence of Delivery Methods and Legislative Impediments on Project Performance Information <p>The choice of a suitable delivery method plays a considerable role in the performance of a construction project. Previous research has attempted the development of a systematic approach to project delivery method selection focusing on performance information. However, such attempts did not properly address public agencies and legislative impediments are almost entirely neglected as suggested variables in such models. This paper addresses these limitations by presenting a quantitative analysis to test whether federal and state legal limitations do influence project performance. Project characteristics from the U.S. General Services Administration Capital Construction Project database are presented. The database is analyzed using cross-tabulation to determine potential correlations among the variables, and specifically their relation to project delivery method choice and performance information. Contributions from this research are reflected in presenting a methodology for choosing alternative delivery methods while considering project characteristics and specifically the legislative impediments associated with a construction project and their influence on project performance.</p> Valerie Smith Daniel Castro-Lacouture Rita Oberle Copyright (c) 2010 Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value 2010-02-01 2010-02-01 12 2 1 1 10.37265/japiv.v2i1.114